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Another name for Perinatology is maternal-foetal medicine. This is mainly for the mother and fetus health during and after the pregnancy. Perinatologists act both as a consultant during lower-risk pregnancies and as the primary obstetrician in especially high-risk pregnancies. The field of maternal-fetal medicine or Perinatology is one of the most rapidly evolving fields in medicine, especially with respect to the fetus. Research is being carried on in the field of fetal gene and stem cell therapy in hope to provide early treatment for genetic disorders, open fetal surgery for the correction of birth defects like congenital heart disease, and the prevention of preeclampsia.
Birth asphyxia happens when a baby’s brain and other organs do not get enough oxygen and nutrients before, during or right after birth, it results into a disorder known as Birth Asphyxia. Perinatal asphyxia can be the cause of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy or intraventricular hemorrhage, especially in preterm births. An infant suffering severe perinatal asphyxia usually has poor color (cyanosis), perfusion, responsiveness, muscle tone, and respiratory effort
This disorder occurs when the bands of amnion (the inner lining of the amniotic sack) peels away from the sack and gets attached around parts of the baby's body, disrupting normal development. There are several forms of Amniotic band Syndromes that cause severe fetal deformities:
Limb and/or body wall defect (LBWD)
Body stalk complex
Amniotic deformity, adhesions and mutilations (ADAM complex)
Amniotic adhesion malformation syndrome
Breastfeeding (also called Nursing) is when you feed your baby breast milk, usually directly from your breast. It has a nearly perfect mix of vitamins, protein, and fat -- everything your baby needs to grow. And it's all provided in a form more easily digested than infant formula. Breast milk provides abundant and easily absorbed nutritional components, antioxidants, enzymes, immune properties, and live antibodies from mother. Mother’s more mature immune system makes antibodies to the germs to which she and her baby have been exposed. These antibodies enter her milk to help protect her baby from illness. Immunoglobulin A coats the lining of the baby’s immature intestines helping germs and allergens from leaking through. Breast milk also contains substances that naturally soothe infants.
Neonatal hypocalcemia occurs within the first two days of life and is most often caused by prematurity, being small for gestational age, maternal diabetes or hyperparathyroidism, and perinatal asphyxia. Neonates may have hypotonia, tachycardia, tachypnea, apnea, poor feeding, jitteriness, tetany, and/or seizures.
Neonatal sepsis is a blood infection that occurs in an infant younger than 90 days old. Early-onset sepsis is seen in the first week of life. Late onset sepsis occurs after 1 week through 3 months of age. Neonatal sepsis is divided into two categories: early-onset sepsis (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS). EOS refers to sepsis presenting in the first 7 days of life (although some refer to EOS as within the first 72 hours of life), with LOS referring to presentation of sepsis after 7 days (or 72 hours, depending on the system used). Neonatal sepsis is the single most common cause of neonatal death in hospital as well as community in developing country.
These are the seizure in a baby younger than 4 weeks old. These can abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. They are the most frequent neurological problem in the nursery, and often require evaluation and treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit.
This is basically the death of Intestinal tissues in the newborn baby. The wall of the intestine is invaded by bacteria, which cause local infection and inflammation that can ultimately destroy the wall of the bowel (intestine). Such bowel wall destruction can lead to perforation of the intestine and spillage of stool into the infant’s abdomen, which can result in an overwhelming infection and death.
Neonatal surgery is performed on babies shortly after they are born. It is typically meant to treat conditions that cannot be diagnosed and/or addressed while still in the womb. Like fetal surgery, neonatal surgical procedures are unique to each condition. They can include minimally invasive procedures (often used to treat digestive issues, such as atresia), as well as more involved open surgical procedures, such as those used to treat heart and lung defects.
A newborn's skin is extremely sensitive and may exhibit a variety of changes during the first four weeks of life. Skin rashes are common in neonates and can be dangerous to their health. During the first four weeks of life, the newborn period includes various dermatologic skin problems. Most of them are innocent and transient. However, serious infectious, congenital skin diseases and sometimes malign tumors should be taken into consideration. Neonatal skin lesions are common. Differentiation of the nonsignificant conditions from more serious clinical entities is important.
Infants are vulnerable to diseases just after birth and as they make a transition from the safety of the womb to this world. Common health problems in babies include colds, coughs, fevers, and vomiting. Babies also commonly have skin problems, like diaper rash or cradle cap. Many low-birth-weight infants will be able to suckle at the breast. Infants who can suckle should be breastfed. Those who cannot breastfeed should be given expressed breast milk with a cup and spoon.
Screening in infants is done shortly after birth for conditions that are treatable, but not clinically evident in the newborn period. This is done to identify infants at risk for these conditions early enough to confirm the diagnosis and provide intervention that will alter the clinical course of the disease and prevent or ameliorate the clinical manifestations Squamous cell carcinoma
Newborns have an immature immune system that renders them at high risk for infection while simultaneously reducing responses to most vaccines, thereby posing challenges in protecting this vulnerable population. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or reduce the effects of infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen. Many vaccines require multiple doses for maximum effectiveness, either to produce sufficient initial immune response or to boost response that fades over time. For example, tetanus vaccine boosters are often recommended every 10 years. Vaccine schedules are developed by governmental agencies or physicians groups to achieve maximum effectiveness using required and recommended vaccines for a locality while minimizing the number of health care system interactions.
An abortion is when the pregnancy is ended so that it does not result in the birth of a child. This is also called a termination of pregnancy. The fetus is removed from the womb, either by taking pills(medical abortion) which involves taking medicines to cause a miscarriage, or by surgery (surgical abortion)
Nutrient demands for preterm babies are challenging to meet, and hence the growth faltering is common. The primary and most important form of nutrition for infants is breastfeeding. For the infants who cannot breastfeed; standard infant formulas should be given to support adequate nutrition and growth.
Retinopathy of prematurity is a potentially blinding complication of preterm birth. The condition starts within a few weeks of birth and can progress rapidly over the following few weeks, or regress spontaneously. The international classification describes 5 stages, 3 zones, and plus disease (tortuosity and dilation of retinal blood vessels). In 2010 the annual incidence of blindness or visual impairment from ROP was estimated to affect 32,000 infants born preterm. All regions are now affected.
Risk factors for ROP include increasing prematurity, intrauterine fetal growth restriction and a range of postnatal risk factors including hyperoxia and fluctuating hypo-/hyperoxia, sepsis, failure to gain weight, thrombocytopenia and transfusion with blood products. Infants who are unstable, and who develop necrotising enterocolitis and bronchopulmonary dyplasia are particularly at risk.
Pediatric dermatology refers to the treatment of children and infants derma. This is used in diagnosis of various skin conditions, including hemangiomas and other vascular birthmarks, pigmented birthmarks, and congenital skin disorders, eczema or atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, contact dermatitis, Vitiligo, hives, and warts .
There are chances that a baby is born with genetic disorders. These are the direct result of a mutation in one gene. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects one gene; Chromosomal disorders, where chromosomes (or parts of chromosomes) are missing or changed; Complex disorders, where there are mutations in two or more genes. Examples include Cystic fibrosis, Sickle cell disease, etc