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International Conference on Neonatology, will be organized around the theme “Development & Advancements in Neonatal Care and Medicine”

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Neonatology is a branch of medical science which deals with care, improvement, and infections of new-born children. In some cases babies are born before their bodies are prepared to leave the womb. Major organs like heart, lungs, stomach, and skin may not be developing enough to work without exceptional help. In spite of the fact that paediatrician can deal with most medicinal issues of children, a Neonatologist work is to manage the risk factors and high-hazard conditions.

premature birth is a birth that takes place more than three weeks before the baby's estimated due date i.e. is fewer than 37 weeks gestational age. Those premature babies may have very mild symptoms or may have more-obvious complications. Babies born this early will likely need a longer hospital stay in a special nursery unit at the hospital. The cause of preterm birth is often exactly not known, but it may happened due to conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure, being pregnant with more than one baby, being either obese or underweight, a number of vaginal infections, tobacco smoking and psychological stress are some of the reasons. Preterm birth is the most widely recognized reason for death among new born children around the world.

Dental problems

Chronic health issues

 

 

Research suggests that kangaroo mother care gives premature and low birth-weight babies a better chance of thriving. Kangaroo care method is a process of placing a premature baby on its mother’s naked chest allowing tummy to tummy contact to locate the baby between the mother’s breasts. The baby’s head is positioned above the mother’s heart. This is a technique whereby parents or caregivers become a baby’s incubator until they could maintain their own body temperature. Kangaroo Mother Care has essential components are skin-to-skin contact, and breastfeeding. Many studies have shown that Kangaroo Care offers significant benefits.

 

Infants born prematurely have unique nutritional needs. The nutrition will have a lifelong impact which is provided during the first days, weeks, and months after birth. Without proper weight gain, new-borns are at risk for delays in their growth and development. Numerous studies from around the world suggest that Breast milk is the safest and healthiest food for babies. It provides all the essential nutrition for infants. Breast feeding protects infants from a long list of illnesses along with better development and stronger immune system.

 

 

Respiratory distress is a common presenting feature immediately after birth and is typically caused by abnormal respiratory function during the transition from fetal to neonatal life. When a neonate is affected by respiratory disorders there will be higher risk conditions and requires clinical care by a physician or other health care professional.

 

Mostly new born babies are admitted to the NICU, they comes under premature (born before 37 weeks of pregnancy), have low birth weight (less than 5.5 pounds), or have a health condition that requires special care. Neonates who requires intensive medical attention are often admitted into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in the hospital. These premature babies requires a special care in an incubator, which provides heat to keep a constant body temperature and mimics the uterine environment. IV hydration and other evidence-based therapies are given to them along with high caloric food. Some of the below reasons might sent babies to NICU.

 

Neonatal nursing is a type of sub speciality nursing who works with new born babies with a variety of issues which involves in from prematurity, birth defects, infection, cardiac malformations, and surgical problems. The neonatal period is characterized as the first month of life; however, these infants are often sick for months. Neonatal nursing for the most part includes care to those new-born children who encounter issues due to premature born or sickness after birth. A few neonatal nurses may look after babies up to around 2 years old. Most neonatal nurses may take care to babies from the period of birth until they are discharged from the hospital.

 

Maternal Fetal Medicine specialist is a doctor specializes in providing care for women who are at high risk problems during their pregnancies. Maternal Fetal Medicine specialist gives regular prenatal care for women with high-risk pregnancies which helps to manage the mother's existing health problems, such as high blood pressure and diabetes. MFM is a sub-specialty of obstetrics which focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of expectant mothers and their unborn babies. Specialist gives regular prenatal care for women with high-risk pregnancies and helps to manage the mother's existing health problems, such as high blood pressure and diabetes. MFM physician frequently monitors the growing foetus to check for the developmental conditions. We can also check for any birth defects and genetic disorders with tests such as amniocentesis and umbilical cord sampling.

An MFM specialist will work closely with pregnant women and her regular health providers for a safe labor and delivery.

 

The effect of foetus or embryo which cause disease after birth or fatal is Fetal anomalies. The introduction of high-frequency vaginal probes has enabled has empowered early finding of certain fetal irregularities from the 12th to 14th week of pregnancy. Such early testing is vital for women who have encountered with pregnancy related with birth abnormalities.

 

The medicinal condition which results from deprivation of oxygen to a baby that lasts long during the birth procedure to cause physical damage, usually to the brain is Perinatal asphyxia, neonatal asphyxia or birth asphyxia. The majority of the newborn child's organs can leads to Hypoxic harm (heart, lungs, liver, gut, kidneys); however brain damage is of most concern and may be to the least liable to heal. In more prominent cases, a newborn child will survive, however with harm to the brain showed as either mental, such as developmental delay or intellectual disability, or physical, such as spasticity.

 

Infants have weak immune systems. Most diseases in infants are caused by microbes, while some are caused by viruses. Symptoms of disease incorporate temperature over 38.0 degrees C, poor sustaining, irritability, excessive sleepiness, fast breathing and change in behaviour. If new born baby has an infection, they might be taken to the exceptional care nursery of the hospital, where they will be set on a warming bed or in an incubator to manage their body temperature. They might be connected to a cardiorespiratory monitor to measure their heart rate and breathing. They may also need a monitor called a pulse oximeter to determine whether there are proper levels of oxygen in their body.

 

Preterm babies are at increased risk of encountering difficulties of vaccine preventable diseases yet are more likely to receive vaccines on time. Medicinal studies says that preterm infants and lowbirth weight newborn children ought to get full doses ofHaemophilus influenzae type bhepatitis B, poliovirus, diphtheria, lockjaw, Acellular pertussis and pneumococcal conjugate antibodies at a chronologic age predictable with the timetable prescribed for full-term babies.

 

Most pregnancies happen without confusions. Nonetheless, a few ladies who are pregnant will encounter inconveniences that can include their wellbeing, their child's wellbeing, or both. Here the sicknesses conditions of the mother had before she ended up pregnant can leads to complications during pregnancy. Indeed, even with Complications, early discovery and pre-birth care can reduce any further risk to mother and infant.

 

Cardiac emergencies in children are not infrequent. Neonates with cardiac disease may present in acute or critical condition. Although cardiac diseases are not common causes among general pediatric emergencies, it is highly important to recognize these causes early and initiate proper treatments as they need specific and urgent management. Late diagnosis can lead to significant respiratory compromises or circulatory failure in up to 30% of non-syndromic children born with congenital heart diseases.

 

Congenital and acquired conditions of  Renal disorders belongs to heterogeneous groups. Renal Disease is usually by fetal ultrasonograms that detect signs of obstructive uropathyFetal hydrops may occur with congenital nephrotic syndrome. Renal disease vary with the type and severity of abnormality.The commonest type, is characterized by inadequate renal perfusion, and is often called prerenal azotemia. Causes are any conditions that lead to inadequate renal perfusion. Newborn infants with isolated severe renal failure may be offered long term dialysis but only after careful consideration.

 

Neurological disease which occurs in the treatment of newborn period is Neonatal Neurology. There are many reasons will be involved in the neurological issue. It is either due to a premature birth or due to difficult delivery and can be congenital.

 

The disorders like phenylketonuria (PKU), cystic fibrosis, sickle cell illness, basic inborn coronary illness, hearing misfortune, and others are seen in Neonatal Genetics . Despite the fact that the clinical implications of these discoveries are as yet constrained, in a few circumstances hereditary examinations may significantly help in quiet administration.

The conditions incorporated into infant screening can cause genuine medical issues beginning in earliest stages or youth. Early recognition and treatment can help counteract scholarly and physical incapacities and life undermining sicknesses. Neonatal seizures are typically self-restricted and suddenly vanish in days to half a month. The most noticeable element of neurologic brokenness in the neonatal period is the event of seizures.

 

The yellowish discoloration of the white part of the eyes and skin in a neonate due to high bilirubin levels is Neonatal jaundice .It is a common condition in the babies  born before 38weeks and some breastfeed babies also. The symptoms which includes excess sleepiness  or poor feeding. If the jaundice is mild in infants it often disappears on its own within two or three weeks, or else the baby should be readmitted in the hospital for the treatment. Photo therapy or light therapy is the treatment which lowers bilirubin levels in the blood in neonate. It mainly occurs due to break down of RBC’s, liver diseases, hypothyroidism etc.

 

If the infants do not produce required amount of insulin, which leads to increase in glucose levels is Neonatal Diabetes. It occurs in the 1st six months of babies life which is a rare disease. Juvenile diabetes is one of the kind which effects toddlers and babies. The symptoms includes frequent urination, Extreme hunger, Weight loss, Irritability or behavior changes, Fatigue, Fruity-smelling breath, Blurred vision, Yeast infection etc.

 

Neonatal sepsis is a bacterial blood stream infection presence in a newborn baby. It is a type of neonatal infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, gastroenteritis or pyelonephritis in the setting of fever. Neonatal sepsis as also known as "sepsis neonatorum". The major cause of neonatal sepsis is caused by a bacteria Group B streptococcus and some of the bacteria like Escherichia coli, some strains of Streptococcus and Listeria.The symptoms involve vomiting, diarrhoea, bradycardia, temperature instability, respiratory distress, diminished spontaneous activity, seizures, jaundice etc. It can be treated by a method such as Antibiotic Therapy, Investigational Therapies etc.

Development of septic shock or organ failure

Microbiological eradication (for antibiotics)

Organ failure resolution

Modification of assigned treatment because of treatment failure

Neuro-developmental outcome

Complications of sepsis

 

 

Reflexes are the responses which are abnormal in other ages but are common in infants. Inborn reflexes are the neonatal reflexes which displays during the child birth. A regularly creating infant should react to certain stimuli with these reflexes. When the child matures the reflexes eventually becomes inhibited.

 

Nutrition plays an important role especially in the first couple of weeks after the child birth. Breast Feeding has important ingredients that build the baby’s immune system.  Neonatal nutrition is important for the growth and development of the newborn babies. In general, babies should be atleast 4 pounds before they are ready to come out of the incubator.